Before you can go out to the golf course, you should know exactly how far you hit the ball with each club in your bag under normal weather. (Such as 70 degrees fahrenheit)
If you do know, then you can expect your ball to fly a little bit further or less depending on the weather conditions.
Remember, in the cold weather, the ball will not fly as far and in hot weather, the ball will fly further.
Another thing is that in the cold weather, your ball will not stop as quickly on the greens while your ball will stop a lot more quickly in warm or hot weather.
But again, you need to know the exact yardage for each shot that you know how to hit whether that be a 1/2 swing sand wedge or full driver.
Even though specific clubs are designed for long shots and other clubs were made for shorter ones, the distance that different players can hit the very same club will vary tremendously. This is why so many beginner golfers do not get the results they want from a club that is supposed to hit the ball in a certain way.
The best way to learn specifically what you can accomplish with each golf club is to find a large field that is big enough to handle the travel distance of your longest drive. Make sure that there are no windy conditions that day, and of course be positive that the field is empty for obvious safety reasons.